Effect of the Ethanol Extract of Zapoteca Portoricensis Roots on Malaria-Infected Mice

– Effect of the Ethanol Extract of Zapoteca Portoricensis Roots on malaria-infected Mice –

ABSTARCT

The effect of the Zapoteca portoricensis roots on malaria was determined by checking the percentage parasitaemia, some hematological parameters such as packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), total white blood cell count (TWBC), and red blood cell count (RBC).
Also, some biochemical parameters such as liver enzyme markers; aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and kidney function markers include urea and creatinine concentrations.

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The analyses were carried out using standard analytical procedures. The Zapoteca portoricensis roots were randomly collected from Umabor Ehalumona, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.
The results of this study showed that the percentage yield of the ethanol extract of Zapoteca portoricensis roots was 3.18%. The acute toxicity test of the ethanol extract showed no toxicity up to 2900mg/kg body weight.
The phytochemical constituents found were alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, resin, fats, and oil.
Treatment of infected mice with the ethanol extract of Zapoteca portoricensis roots caused mean percentage parasitaemia to reduce significantly (p < 0.05) in groups 4, 5, and 6 administered 100, 200, and 300mg/kg b.w of the extract respectively when compared to the group 2 mice (malaria untreated).

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Background of Study
Malaria remains one of the most widespread infectious diseases of our time. The latest estimates reveal that ~250 million people are infected with malaria across the globe, of whom ~800,000 die every year (WHO, 2010), the vast majority being young children.
Most available antimalarials were designed to target the pathogenic blood stages in humans and to address the constant threat of drug resistance (Fidock, 2010).
Traditional methods of treatment and control of malaria could be a promising source of potential anti-malaria drugs (Ugwu et al., 2013; Sumalata and Sreedevi, 2012; Venkat et al., 2011; Wright and Phillipson, 1990).
More than 80% of the world’s population relies on traditional medicine for their primary healthcare needs (WHO, 2008).
In developing countries, low-income people such as farmers, people of small isolated villages, and native communities use folk medicine for the treatment of common infectious diseases. These plants are ingested as decoctions, teas, or juice preparations (Gonzalez, 1980).
The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Zapoteca portoricensis belonging to the family Fabaceae are traditionally used as antidiarrhoeal, anti canvulsant, antispasmodic, and in the treatment of tonsillitis.

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